Category Archives: Through Wall Surveillance

Space Mirror in Russia ( Father of HAARP in USA)

Space Mirror

by N.Shpakovsky,
TRIZ-Consultant, Ph.D.
nick_sh2000@mail.ru

Abstract. The article analyzes the failure of the Russian project �Znamya 2�, which is better known as �Space Mirror�. When unfolding, the space mirror membrane caught on the antenna that projected over the space station body.

Using TRIZ, the causes of the failure were analyzed and a number of solutions for improving the reliability of the flexible membrane unfolding under weightlessness were proposed.

Introduction. The space mirror that reflects the Sun�s rays onto the nightside of our planet is one of the impressive space projects. In 1993, the spaceship �Progress M-15� placed into orbit a 20-meter film mirror (the project �Znamya 2�). The mirror unfurled and produced a light spot that was equal in strength approximately to one full moon. A huge plash of sunlight glanced over beclouded Europe to be seen only by astronomers on the top of the Alps.

The project �Znamya 2.5� stood head and shoulders above its predecessor. The mirror was expected to be perceived on the Earth as 5 to 10 full moons and it formed a trace of about 7 km in diameter which could be controlled by fixing it on one spot for a long time. The space mirror was a slightly concave membrane of 25 m in diameter made of thin film with a mirror surface, which was attached around the periphery of the station. The membrane was expected to unfold and be held unfolded by centrifugal forces (Fig.1).


Fig.1

However, the project was a failure. Soon after the deployment started, the membrane caught on the antenna (Fig. 2). The spaceship �Progress M-40 was de-orbited and buried in the ocean.

Fig. 2

It would be interesting to consider this situation in terms of TRIZ. Why exactly hasn�t the membrane unfolded? Has everything been done for it to unfold? What can be done to make such membranes unfold under various conditions? There is a great many of similar constructions and it is not always possible to provide such unfolding conditions as for the solar mirror.

Was this failure natural? In principle, from the point of view of traditional design everything is OK. The membrane�s prototype is a parachute canopy. There is no oncoming air stream in space, so inertia forces that occur as a result of the space station rotation are used to unfold the membrane. The first membrane – that of �Znamya 2� – unfolded successfully. Besides, there is a good analogue – designs of spaceships with a solar sail in which the sail is unfolded and held by a centrifugal force occurring during the spaceship rotation. It also seems correct in the context of TRIZ. The basic requirement of ideality is satisfied – the membrane itself without any additional devices moves off the station, unfolds and is held unfolded.

This, however, has not worked. The station started rotating, the membrane began moving off it and caught on the antenna. We can certainly blame the antenna. Parachute-jumpers thoroughly remove all buckles, hooks and heelplates – everything on which the parachute may caught while deploying – from their clothing and especially from the helmets and footwear. But the space station is an expensive and serious thing and is designed to solve many different problems during one flight. It is difficult to remove all devices from the station�s surface, as they are needed for solving other problems. Under such conditions, one accidental jerk of the engine can cause inertia to throw the unfolding membrane back onto the antenna.

Rational membrane-unfolding technology. Let us try to solve this problem with the aid of TRIZ and find a method for unfolding the membrane without removing the antennas and other objects projecting over the station�s surface. Unfortunately, we�ll only have to be guided by the published information, so we�ll have to think ourselves of such important �trifles� as the design of membrane-holding devices, locks, etc. Or, for instance, what are the radial slits in the membrane for?

Thus, we have a packed membrane attached around the periphery of the station. It is held, for instance, by several flexible bands with locks (Fig. 3, a).

Fig. 3

Let us recall one of the basic TRIZ laws – the law of coordination of ES parts� interaction – and try to build a �desirable technology� of membrane deployment. The deployment process falls into two distinct stages. At the first stage, the station starts rotating, locks are released and the membrane moves off the station�s surface (Fig. 3,d). The second stage includes the unfolding of the membrane, its final stretching and holding in the unfolded state. (Fig.3,c).

The first stage is apparently most complex. Since the entire mass of the packed membrane is situated near the axis of rotation, centrifugal forces are comparatively small at that moment, while the work to be done by them is considerable. At the same time, certain requirements are also imposed on the sequence of membrane deployment. It would be better for the membrane not to unfold at once throughout the entire volume, but from the center toward the edges, quickly receding from the station to the area that is free from projecting antennas, in the form of a compact torus-like packing and not as an inordinate heap.

Further stretching of the unfolded membrane is not connected with any troubles because at that time the membrane is already far from the �human factor�. Here we can do with centrifugal forces.

Thus, we can formulate an important requirement for the deployment process: �the unfolded internal part of the membrane must be permanently stretched�.

How can we accomplish sequential unfolding of the membrane? The chances are that it is �concertinaed� before the flight and then it is unfolded throughout the entire volume after releasing the locks.

Proposal 1. Leave free some of the folds adjoining the station and fasten the rest of the folds together with destroyable filaments or bands. Then peripheral tensile stress will first spread the folds near the station surface and the part of the membrane adjoining the station will be stretched. And only then the ties of the peripheral part of the membrane will break and the final deployment will start (Fig.4).

Fig. 4.

How can we accelerate the membrane deployment at the first stage?

It is obvious that we can either increase the station spinning frequency or increase the membrane mass. But carrying an extra load is not an ideal solution. Suppose we first spin up the station and then release the locks� And suppose we place a ring charge BB under the packed membrane, then release the membrane from the locks and explode the charge! Or place small jet engines around the external periphery of the membrane�

Something will definitely fly to pieces, because the membrane is only 7 mm thick.

What are the requirements for the membrane mass in this case?

  • On the one hand, the membrane must be heavy to be able to unfold fast and to move off the station.

  • At the same time, the membrane must be lightweight to prevent the occurrence of excessive loads produced by centrifugal forces.

We can resolve this contradiction in the following way. Let the membrane be heavy at the first stage of deployment and lightweight during the rest of the time. Or rather, the unfolding force must be great at the first stage. Then it may be much smaller, but great enough to unfold and stretch the membrane.

What resources are available?

Substances: membrane, space station, vacuum, air that remained inside the membrane after packing (if it is not evacuated while packing).

Fields: electric, magnetic, Sun�s light field, heat field, space wind. The characteristics of most fields may vary within very wide ranges by turning the station relative to the Sun.

Time: unlimited before the conflict, including the time of space station preparation on the Earth.

Let us draw an abstract model of the problem (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5

B2 is a station. It is a tool. B1 is a packed membrane. It is an object. B2 acts on B1 by the mechanical field (Fineria), produced by the inertia forces. This action is insufficient.

What do the standards recommend (1)?

Introduce one more substance and a field to control this substance.

For instance, add ferromagnetic particles while manufacturing the membrane. Then, while unfolding, the membrane may be acted upon by an annular electromagnet placed around the station body�s periphery. However, it is necessary to additionally introduce an electromagnet, which reduces the system�s ideality.

Add one more substance to one of the interacting substances.

B1 is a station. A space station is a large vessel with air. Consequently, the second substance is already available. It only remains to use it.

Proposal 2. We can provide rapid withdrawal of the membrane from the station to the distance of the non-fastened folds by using the energy of compressed air supplied under the packed membrane. In this case, as distinct from the explosion of a ring charge, the action value can be easily controlled (Fig. 6).

Fig. 6

Transfer to a capillary-porous substance.

Make the membrane capillary-porous.

Proposal 3. For instance, paste thin pipes in the mirror membrane cloth and supply compressed air into them while unfolding. The membrane will change into a plane practically instantly and with a great force.

Eliminating possible catching. As for possible hooking of the membrane during the deployment, the following contradiction occurs.

  • The membrane must not catch on a hook.

  • Under the deployment conditions, the membrane can contact a hook.

Of course, it would be ideal to remove the conditions that cause the membrane catching. But if we cannot eliminate such a probability, it is necessary to make so that the caught membrane can be easily released. How can we resolve this contradiction?

Firstly, we can do this in time.

At the first stage of deployment, when the catching is most probable, the unfolding force should be large enough to secure tearing a piece out of the membrane cloth. The peace should be big enough only for normal unfurling and stretching of the unfurled membrane.

This is achieved by introducing additional forces at the first stage of deployment (Proposals 2 and 3) to help the peripheral centrifugal force.

Secondly, we can do this in space.

For this purpose we use a resource: the membrane material.

We can formulate the following requirement for this material. Let the membrane have rigid surface in close proximity to the station and let the surface become flexible and elastic as the membrane moves off the station.

Proposal 4. The peripheral part of the membrane moves off the station in the form of compact torus-like packing. The packed membrane may be placed inside a rigid thin-walled body with an open bottom (Fig. 7). Because during the deployment the circumference of the packed membrane constantly increases, the body must be corrugated and must extend like accordion. Or it must be composed of several sections that move relative to one another. The use of such a body provides a good protection of the packed membrane against hooking and allows for preserving its compact form without bonding or binding.

Fig. 7.

The membrane is likely to have equal strength in all directions. This is quite correct for that of its parts, which is situated comparatively far from the station. At the same time, the requirements for the central part of the membrane are contradictory:

  • On the one hand, the membrane must not be durable so that it can tear and unhook.

  • At the same time, the membrane must be durable so that is does not fail while unfolding and in a working position.

To satisfy these contradictory requirements, we can structure the material of the central part of the membrane.

Radial filaments must be comparatively durable to provide reliable attachment of the membrane to the station body. Tangential filaments that are perpendicular to those radial must not be durable so that they easily break in case of hooking. For peripheral forces not to break the membrane at the interface of its central and peripheral parts, a ring band can be used here for reinforcement.

In principle, since the area of the membrane�s central part is comparatively small, tangential filaments may be removed at all.

Proposal 5. Make the membrane in the form of a wide ring attached to the station body with bands or cables. In packing, such bands are easy to �concertina� like shroud lines. Each folded band can be put into a covering attached to the membrane. This will ensure well-ordered unfolding of the central part of the membrane and will eliminate hooking (Fig. 8).

Fig. 8.

Final solution concept. To build a final solution concept, let us take proposal 3 as a basis that provides energetic withdrawal of the membrane from the station as envisaged in our �desirable technology of membrane deployment�. This proposal is well supplemented by proposal 1 that ensures the membrane moving off the station in a compact packed state and by proposal 5 that excludes the catching of the middle part of the membrane on the projecting parts of the station�s surface. In this case proposal 3 and proposal 5 are just combined. As for proposal 1, we only use the function �to hold the membrane packed� which is performed with the aid of resources available in the system (pipes with compressed air).

To provide fast and energetic unfolding of the middle part of the membrane, it is necessary to use, instead of a one-piece film, thin radially positioned pipes that connect the packed peripheral part of the membrane with the station. By supplying compressed air into the pipes we�ll practically instantly obtain a rigid frame that will ensure energetic unfolding of the membrane at the first stage.

To hold the membrane in a compact packed state until the full unfolding of its middle part, it is proposed to make each of the membrane-holding clamps in the form of two pipes that encompass the membrane on its sides. The pipes� end faces should be closed and connected with the rest of the frame. The pipes� ends should be connected with each other with a break-off band or filament. After the full unfolding of the frame of the membrane�s middle part, compressed air starts going into the clamps� pipes. The pipes straighten with a great force, break the bands and release the membrane (Fig. 9).

Proposal 2 is partially realized by using compressed air.

Fig. 9

Intensified solution. If it is still impossible to avoid the contact of the membrane, which moves off the station, with hooks, it is expedient to additionally use proposal 4.

The packed membrane is placed in a rigid multi-section thin-walled body, which is discarded after complete deployment of the membrane.

Conclusion. No doubt that using only open sources of information we missed out many circumstances. But I hope that this attempt to analyze the problem will be to a certain extent useful to space mirror designers, and not only to them. We are sure that all the errors will be corrected and after the next attempt we�ll see a hand-made sun in the night sky.

Reference

  1. Altshuller, Genrikh. �The Innovative Algorithm. TRIZ, Systematic Innovation and Technical Creativity.� Technical Innovation Center, INC. Worcester, MA. 1999.

The pictures by Elena Novitskaja.

 

(back to top)

� Copyright 1997-2005 CTQ Media LLC
http://www.triz-journal.com
All Rights Reserved.

 

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Mercury News: Man with defibrillator wants to know what his heart is saying

By Lisa M. Krieger

lkrieger@mercurynews.com

Posted: 01/29/2012 03:28:34 PM PST
Updated: 01/30/2012 03:07:20 AM PST

Hugo Campos has a small computer buried in his chest to help keep him alive. But he has no idea what it says about his faulty heart.

All the raw data it collects, especially any erratic rhythms it controls with shocks, goes directly to the manufacturer. And some of it later gets sent to his doctor.

But Campos had to step onto a national stage in his fight to see the data his body produces.

His David-and-Goliath campaign puts him on the leading edge of what’s called the “e-patient movement” — “engaged, equipped and enabled” — that seeks to harness data so patients can learn more about their bodies.

“It’s mine. I paid for it. It’s in my body,” asserts the tech-savvy 45-year-old, who since his sudden collapse at the Fruitvale BART station four years ago has devoted himself to studying cardiology textbooks, attending device symposiums and scheming how to access the electronics of his tiny defibrillator.

“I have a right to my own damn data,” he said.

The information could help him take control of his health, said the Brazilian-born graphic artist.

Already he discovered — using an online spreadsheet accessible from his iPhone — that caffeine and Scotch trigger irregular heartbeats.

But it would be far better to have raw, real-time data, he said.

Federal law entitles patients to easy access to their health records, including X-rays and pathology reports.

But implanted defibrillator data is
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different. The information stays with manufacturers, who use it to monitor and improve their products. And it comes in a format that is not easily understood. Patients can get only interpreted data, not the raw data.

“It’s just wrong,” Campos asserts. “We get all our financial data — why is it different with health care? Patients should be empowered to take care of their lives.”

Deluge of interest

Each year, hundreds of thousands of Americans are implanted with small battery-powered electrical impulse generators, such as pacemakers, loop recorders and cardiac defibrillators.

The devices are critical for people like Campos, whose irregular heartbeat threatens sudden cardiac arrest. They also wirelessly transmit data to bedside monitors, and then over a telephone line to the manufacturers.

Much of the collected data — such as average heart rate, fluid accumulation, atrial arrhythmias — is diagnostic.

But these devices also collect huge amounts of proprietary information, such as wiring breakdowns, battery voltage and the time it takes to release a shock.

Calls and emails deluged him after an online video of last November’s TEDxCambridge speech went viral. He has also testified before the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and been featured on National Public Radio.

He’s started a blog, founded an online “Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD) User Group” and embraced a new world of patient advocacy through social media. He’s even written a protest song inspired by Malvina Reynolds’ “It Isn’t Nice.” (“It isn’t nice to grab my data, from my implantable device. Then to hog it, keep it from me. That’s not right, I’ve told you twice. It isn’t nice.”)

To prepare himself to understand the device and its data, he earned a certificate from the Arrhythmia Technologies Institute. “Patients need to educate themselves,” he said. “It really is the only way to get a proper seat at the table.”

In an effort to better understand their construction, he’s bought 19 different used devices on eBay, storing them in velvet sacs in a gold-decorated box.

“He is a pioneer. He’s an articulate visionary who sees what is possible and expresses it as common sense,” said Dave deBronkart of Nashua, N.H.

DeBronkart is a kidney cancer survivor who launched a right-to-information campaign after discovering that his hospital had exported a Google personal health record riddled with inaccuracies and omissions.

Campos’ campaign has a professional supporter.

“It is embarrassing to leave our patients in the dark, by design or technological necessity,” wrote Dr. David Lee Scher in his blog. The former cardiac electrophysiologist founded DLS Healthcare Consulting, which advises digital health companies.

He cautions that the data is very technical, even for physicians, and often irrelevant. He urges patients and physicians to work together on a solution.

The concept of “open access” is gaining tradition in the medical device world. The Palo Alto startup Glooko, for instance, sells diabetics a $40 cable that connects glucose meters to iPhones. Meter readings are automatically downloaded, so patients can constantly monitor their blood-sugar levels.

But so far, the billion-dollar ICD industry has been cool to Campos’ campaign.

Interpreting data

The device is implanted for the therapy it delivers, not the information it gathers, manufacturers told Campos. They worry that patients unable to interpret the raw data might become alarmed.

One manufacturer is aware of the building controversy.

“Medtronic is looking into ways to provide patients with meaningful and actionable information with regard to their implantable devices,” said spokeswoman Kathleen Janasz. “We will take all of this feedback into consideration as we move forward in assessing the most appropriate solution.”

In resistance, Campos has decided on a risky political act, rejecting his remote monitor.

“I will not be monitored remotely unless I’m part of the loop,” he asserts.

But new allies have rallied to him: hackers.

More than a dozen engineers have volunteered to help him tap into the wireless system and unlock the data.

“I’ll get it,” he said, “one way or another.”

Contact Lisa M. Krieger at 408-920-5565.

For more information

http://icdusergroup.blogspot.com/

http://www.jopm.org/
http://www.onthemedia.org/2012/jan/20/who-owns-data-inside-your-body/

ONLINE EXTRA

Scan this code with a smartphone to see Campos’s speech at the TEDxCambridge conference.
Find a users’ group for people with implantable defibrillators like Campos’s. http://icdusergroup.
blogspot.com.
Hear an On the Media report about Campos: http://www.onthe
media.org/2012/jan/20/who-owns-data-inside-your-body/.

THUGOCRACY: U.S. FED-POLICE VIGILANTES PERSECUTE CITIZEN TARGETS


• Multi-agency fusion center- directed, police-protected community “policing” thugs stalk, terrorize, home-invade their targets — including the journalist who has exposed the electromagnetic microwave radio frequency cellular “torture towers” being used to silently assault, torture, impair and harm extrajudicially “targeted individuals.”

• Rule of law breaks down in Bucks County, PA, home of mid-Atlantic states’ MAGLOCLEN-RISS Intelligence Center and no law enforcement agency — local, state or federal — will come to the aid of the unjustly targeted.

VIC LIVINGSTON
Over the past seven years, this veteran major market journalist has been poisoned, gassed, vandalized; relentlessly “gang stalked,” harassed, slandered; violated by home invaders and pervasive surveillance; and horrendously tortured and impaired by a stealth microwave radio frequency weapon system — and no law enforcement agency, local or federal, will pursue credible leads that could unmask the community goons and thugs — vigilantes and some uniformed officers — who continue to terrorize me, imprisoning me in what some are calling a ‘virtual Auschwitz.’
How could law enforcement allow this?
The answer is simple: Law enforcement, together with security and intelligence agencies of federal and local government, is the complicit overseer of a nationwide campaign of extrajudicial targeting, persecution and high-tech, electromagnetic silent torture — an American genocide.
The Gestapo-like mechanism that is committing serial crimes against humanity and the Constitution: the 72 regional “fusion centers” administered by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The fusion center “partners” include federal, state and local law enforcement, security, intelligence and revenue agencies, as well as security-related private companies, including telecommunications companies, defense contractors, and financial institutions.
The fusion center Gestapo comprises America’s shadow government, an iron-fisted, centralized apparatus of social and political control, a calculated bypass of elected officials and the courts that arrogantly acts as judge, jury and executioner — an authoritarian regime that makes a mockery of the Constitution and the rule of law.
This fusion center Gestapo is engaged in an inhumane criminal enterprise under the cover of national security and law enforcement. Its structure and tactics echo the efficient, centralized fascism of Nazi Germany. It is directed by a cultish security elite that has quietly usurped power from the nation’s elected lawmakers and judiciary — a federal bureaucrat- directed but grassroots- based American junta.
The fusion center Gestapo, by deliberate calculation, uses the wars on terror, crime and drugs as the pretext, the cover story, for what amounts to a slow-kill genocide — a hate- and ideology-driven silent holocaust directed at persons and entire families it unilaterally and extrajudicially condemns as unworthy of the rights supposedly guaranteed to all Americans under the U.S. Constitution.
The “targets” are untold thousands of citizens, and by extension, their families, who, without benefit of due process under the law, are regarded by faceless bureaucrats in federal and local agencies and commands as dissidents, undesirables, or “enemies of the state.”
As in Nazi Germany, journalists, intellectuals, ethnic minorities and homosexuals are among its prime targets. And it only takes someone in a position of authority within the vast fusion center ambit to set into motion the process that results in a citizen’s designation as a “T.I.” — a targeted individual unjustly condemned to an often foreshortened life of torment, personal and financial sabotage, and physical torture and impairment — slow-kill mass murder.
Politics, ethnic background, and prejudice factor heavily in the decision to extra-legally ruin lives and rip families apart by consigning “targets” to what security and military insiders have labeled “the torture matrix.”
The American Gestapo torture matrix is comprised of four main components:
CHARACTER ASSASSINATION AND FINANCIAL SABOTAGE
The extra-legally targeted person first realizes that he or she has been “thrown into the matrix” when their careers and personal lives take a sudden downturn, accompanied by whispered slanders and lies generated by the entity that first targeted them. A relentless campaign of character assassination, often conducted by persons unknown to the target, often results in sudden job loss, as employers are discreetly informed that their previously prized worker is now a “person of interest” to law enforcement. Strained family relations often follow as the slanders reach spouses and other relations. The character assassination is accompanied by financial sabotage — identity theft, stolen checks and important documents, often leading to financial loss, unfavorable credit terms and inflated balances on fabricated, counterfeited credit card and utility billing statements.

It soon becomes clear to the target that even the local bank or merchant, or at least some of their employees, are in on the expropriation scheme. Targets are treated rudely, with open contempt, by local businesspeople and even by previously friendly neighbors, who likely have been told lies about them by members of the “matrix” — also widely known as “the program.”
SURVEILLANCE AND ORGANIZED ‘GANG STALKING’ DOMESTIC TERRORISM
By this time, all of the targets’ communications — by telecommunications or in the supposed privacy of their own homes — are under constant surveillance, and often ideologically-driven censorship…
… by fusion center network “information systems” defense contractors, whose pervasive warrantless surveillance facilitates the community-based domestic terrorism that is soon to follow — “organized stalking,” commonly referred to as “gang stalking.” These terms are euphemisms for fusion center- coordinated persecution that often hides behind seemingly respectable, government-funded community policing, town watch, and citizen volunteer organizations such as Infragard, C.O.P.S., USA On Watch and Citizen Corps.
If the target does not already have a GPS-equipped vehicle, making it ready for warrantless tracking, a GPS beacon often is planted on the vehicle. The target’s cellphone also is used for tracking — and even targeting for silent microwave radio frequency attack (more on that later).
Squadrons of vehicle stalkers, often affiliated with town watch or community policing groups, relentlessly follow and often tailgate targets as they come into range of their own GPS units; the federally funded RISSNET network apparently supplies the stalker units with the targets’ GPS locations, often by way of local police departments who lord over the government-enabled vigilantes. Some of the stalkers may weave menacingly in the vicinity of the T.I.’s vehicle — or even try to cause an accident. Police may find the “target” at fault, or even may charge the stalking victim with a traffic violation, or a crime (including, ironically, a charge of “stalking”), should they complain.
Community stalkers often parade by the target’s home or conduct “noise campaigns” on nearby streets, or when T.I.’s venture out onto the road — often with the assistance of local firefighters and emergency medical technicians. Local police sometimes participate in this cruel harassment, which includes the phoning in of false alarms in the vicinity of the target — a drain on taxpayer-funded public safety resources.

DEATH BY A THOUSAND CUTS: HOME INTRUSIONS, STREET THEATER, LOSS OF PRIVACY, VANDALISM, COMMERCIAL SABOTAGE
Targets also find themselves the victims of serial incidents of surreptitious home entry; harassing phone calls; vandalism of appliances or major systems such as heating and cooling; even sadistic acts such as poisoning of food and water with foul tasting and hazardous chemicals, and the tearing and staining of clothing, rugs and furnishings. Such acts of criminal depravity often occur as the target and his family is sound asleep — and unlikely to awaken, due to silent radio frequency attack. (Again, more on that in a moment.).

The extra-legally targeted also find they no longer can expect good service, whether it’s in-home repair, at the local retailer, or at the auto service shop. They often find their vehicles mechanically or cosmetically vandalized, causing added expense, and a possible danger to vehicle occupants — or to other motorists driving nearby.
The stark fact is that this government-spawned torture matrix has created a subculture of sadism and cruel depravity. Those wondering why “bullying” has become endemic in our communities need look no further than the local fusion center- affiliated community “watch” Gestapo. Indeed, fusion center- affiliated agencies sponsor weekend retreats for “program” members, where, it has been reported, bullying and harassment methods and tactics are carefully taught.
Want to know who’s doing this locally, where you live? Ask a neighbor for the name of the local “block captain.” Then ask him or her whether “community watch” sometimes turns into community-based harassment and acts of malicious vandalism and psychological torment. See if the answer satisfies you after reading this article and the accompanying linked material.
This “death by a thousand cuts” — the stalking, the character assassination and community “shunning,” the financial sabotage, the home intrusions, the vandalism — is expressly designed to wreak psychological damage on targeted persons, to deconstruct their lives and their personalities, erode their self-confidence and their ability to earn a living, destroy their family and social relations — to neutralize them.
These are the same cruel tactics practiced by authoritarian regimes past and present, from the Nazis to the Communist Chinese.
In hopes of using law enforcement and the health care system as instruments of social neutralization, community vigilante stalkers engage their targets in elaborate set-ups and stunts directed and scripted by their “team leaders.” This “street theater” is intended to unnerve their prey and provoke a response. If the target reacts with often justifiable irritation or anger, other stalkers are there as “witnesses,” should the encounter attract the attention of law enforcement — whose officers already may have been tipped off to the attempted entrapment. It has happened to me repeatedly over the past seven years, as in a contrived confrontation that led to my assault, false arrest and false imprisonment by Falls Township, Bucks County, PA police:
But relatively few street theater scenarios involve law enforcement. Most times, the play-acting is done out of sadistic, petty spite, as I describe in a recent article about the night I visited a Lowe’s hardware superstore trying to find a sink disposer part that was deliberately sabotaged by home intruding community terrorists:
THE FUSION CENTER GESTAPO’S FINAL SOLUTION:  SILENT ELECTROMAGNETIC TORTURE AND IMPAIRMENT — A SLOW-KILL GENOCIDE
The “psychological operations” conducted against targeted persons pale in terms of sheer bestiality when compared to the “final solution” engineered into the fusion center Gestapo plan: silent high-tech torture, impairment, induction of fatigue, stroke, aneurysms, heart attack or other injury and disease — a slow-kill homicide — by means of covert electromagnetic attack.
The covert irradiation of unknowing citizens is facilitated by a U.S. government microwave radio frequency “directed energy” weapon system installed on cell tower masts nationwide — and capable of the precision-targeting of unique individuals — or entire populations.
The existence of these weapons of mass or personal destruction in every neighborhood and along every highway in America was first revealed a year ago by this journalist, who himself continues to be a victim of these heinous attacks:
Nearly eight years of electromagnetic attack have caused serious damage to my physical well-being, including chronic pain; weakened musculature and stamina; chronic fatigue; degraded eyesight and hearing; fibrous tumors; and other physical maladies too disturbing to mention here.
Hospitals and medical facilities in my region, and probably yours, are thoroughly infiltrated by the community stalker brigades; I’ve been subject to sadistic treatment, even to what I believe were harmful procedures such as unnecessary multiple X-rays and even a CAT scan that caused pain — and my outcry elicited a sadistic remark from the technician. This happened at a well-respected central New Jersey hospital center.
When I retrieved the X-ray, I found the name of another person on the actual film, under a sticky label upon which my name had been typed. So I was not surprised when a doctor informed me in 2004, the year I became aware of my targeting, that the X-ray revealed an “aging brain.” I didn’t dare tell her that I believed the X-ray belonged to someone else; if I had, she would have bought the line that I was delusional — just what certain entities may have wanted her to conclude.
I was only 54 years old at the time. I believe I was being set up by unknown authorities seeking to declare me incompetent — a felonious, fraudulent scheme if there ever was one. Perhaps that explains why another patient’s name was on the film. Since no authority will come to my aid, and because it is unlikely that I could have found an attorney to file a lawsuit on a contingency basis absent physical damage arising from the procedure, I just let it drop — and haven’t written about it until today.

 

HOW COULD THIS HAPPEN ‘UNDER THE RADAR?’ REMEMBER HISTORY. NEVER FORGET.
So how, readers may ask, can such a nationwide horror escape the attention of the public, and the news media? The answer is simple. It is the same answer to the question as to how the Jews and other oppressed people of pre-war Germany could not fathom the holocaust that was about to consume their livelihoods and their lives:

The belief that “it can’t happen here.”
Continue reading at NowPublic.com: THUGOCRACY: U.S. FED-POLICE VIGILANTES PERSECUTE CITIZEN TARGETS | NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/world/thugocracy-u-s-fed-police-vigilantes-persecute-citizen-targets#ixzz1auXeUxlZ

 

BRAIN AND SATELLITE SURVEILLANCE, ASSAULT AND TORTURE

NSA Signals Intelligence Use of EMF Brain Stimulation

NSA Signals Intelligence uses EMF Brain Stimulation for Remote Neural Monitoring (RNM) and Electronic Brain Link (EBL). EMF Brain Stimulation has been in development since the MKUltra program of the early 1950’s, which included neurological research into “radiation” (non-ionizing EMF) and bioelectric research and development. The resulting secret technology is categorized at the National Security Archives as “Radiation Intelligence,” defined as “information from unintentionally emanated electromagnetic waves in the environment, not including radioactivity or nuclear detonation.”
Signals Intelligence implemented and kept this technology secret in the same manner as other electronic warfare programs of the U.S. government. The NSA monitors available information about this technology and withholds scientific research from the public. There are also international intelligence agency agreements to keep this technology secret.

The NSA has proprietary electronic equipment that analyzes electrical activity in humans from a distance. NSA computer-generated brain mapping can continuously monitor all the electrical activity in die brain continuously. The NSA records and decodes individual brain maps (of hundreds of thousands of persons) for national security purposes. EMF Brain Stimulation is also secretly used by the military for Brain-to-computer link. (In military fighter aircraft, for example.)

For electronic surveillance purposes electrical activity in the speech center of the brain can be translated into the subject’s verbal thoughts. RNM can send encoded signals to the brain’s auditory cortex thus allowing audio communication direct to the brain (bypassing the ears). NSA operatives can use this to covertly debilitate subjects by simulating auditory hallucinations characteristic of paranoid schizophrenia. 

Without any contact with the subject, Remote Neural Monitoring can map out electrical activity from the visual cortex of a subject’s brain and show images from the subject’s brain on a video monitor. NSA operatives see what the surveillance subject’s eyes are seeing. Visual memory can also be seen. RNM can send images direct to the visual cortex. bypassing the eyes and optic nerves. NSA operatives can use this to surreptitiously put images in a surveillance subject’s brain while they are in R.E.M. sleep for brain- programming purposes. 

Capabilities of NSA operatives using RNM

There has been a Signals Intelligence network in the U.S. since the 1940’s. The NSA, Ft. Meade has in place a vast two-way wireless RNM system which is used to track subjects and non-invasively monitor audio-visual information in their brain. This is all done with no physical contact with the subject. RNM is the ultimate method of surveillance and domestic intelligence. Speech and 3D sound, and subliminal audio can be sent to the auditory cortex of the subject’s brain (bypassing the ears) and images can be sent into the visual cortex. RNM can alter a subject’s perceptions, moods, and motor control.

Speech cortex/auditory cortex link has become the ultimate communications system for the intelligence community. RNM allows for a complete audio-visual brain-to-brain link or brain-to-computer link. 

National Security Agency Signals Intelligence Electronic Brain Link Technology

NSA SigInt can remotely detect, identify and monitor a person’s bioelectric fields.

The NSA’s Signals Intelligence has the proprietary ability to remotely and non-invasively monitor information in the human brain by digitally decoding the evoked potentials in the 30-50 hz,.5 milliwatt electro-magnetic emissions from the brain.

Neuronal activity in the brain creates a shifting electrical pattern that has a shifting magnetic flux. This magnetic flux puts out a constant 30-50 hz, .5 milliwatt electromagnetic (EMF) wave. Contained in the electromagnetic emission from the brain are spikes and patterns called “evoked potentials.”

Every thought, reaction, motor command, auditory event, and visual image in the brain has a corresponding “evoked potential” or set of “evoked potentials.” The EMF emission from the brain can be decoded into the current thoughts, images and sounds in the subject’s brain.

NSA SigInt uses EMF-transmitted Brain Stimulation as a communications system to transmit information (as well as nervous system messages) to intelligence agents and also to transmit to the brains of covert operations subjects (on a non-perceptible level).

EMF Brain Stimulation works by sending a complexly coded and pulsed electromagnetic signal to trigger evoked potentials (events) in the brain, thereby forming sound and visual images in the brain’s neural circuits. EMF Brain Stimulation can also change a person’s brain-states and affect motor control.
Two-way Electronic Brain-Link is done by remotely monitoring neural audio-visual information while transmitting sound to the auditory cortex (bypassing the ears) and transmitting faint images to the visual cortex (bypassing the optic nerves and eyes, the images appear as floating 2-D screens in the brain).

Two-Way Electronic Brain Link has become the ultimate communications system for CIA/NSA personnel. Remote Neural Monitoring (RNM, remotely monitoring bioelectric information in the human brain) has become the ultimate surveillance system. It is used by a limited number of agents in the U.S. Intelligence Community.

RNM requires decoding the resonance frequency of each specific brain area. That frequency is then modulated in order to impose information in That specific brain area. The frequency to which the various brain areas respond varies from 3 Hz to 50 Hz. Only NSA Signals Intelligence modulates signals in this frequency band.

An example of EMF Brain Stimulation: 

Brain Area

Bioelectric
Resonance
Frequency

Information Induced
Through Modulation

Motor Control Cortex

10 HZ

Motor Impulse Co-ordination
Auditory Cortex

15 HZ

Sound which bypasses the ears
Visual Cortex

25 HZ

Images in the brain, bypassing the eyes
Somatosensory Cortex

09 HZ

Phantom Touch Sense
Thought Center

20 HZ

Imposed Subconscious Thoughts

The New Torture / Murder Surveillance of America

An introduction to the effects of “ACOUSTICS” on the human body.

Lately the mainstream television media has addressed the issue of illegal surveillance possibly performed on and against American citizens within the borders of the United States, and has mentioned wiretapping, and reading of e-mails, but no real mention of the heavy duty “ACOUSTICS”.  “Acoustics” refers to the more sophisticated type of surveillance devices which can actually be used as WEAPONS when deployed certain ways.  The “I.R. laser” can be aimed at an area or focused on a window pane or other part of a building or vehicle and can pick up sounds and conversations which can be transferred through electronic circuitry and amplified to produce recognizable conversations and voices, etc..  Whether this device is aimed directly at a person within the building or vehicle, and how close the device is aimed from may determine how much ear ringing or skull pressure and general aggravation the target-victim may suffer.  Also any ability of the operator to alter the modulation of these devices may have an additional effect on the target-victim.  Recently there were incidents on mainstream television news in the past few years of aircraft pilots getting lasers aimed into their cockpits, and the reports of persons going blind or partially blind continues as well, though much of the blindness injury reports escapes the media.

In the event the surveillance lasers are used in the attacks on airliner pilots within their cockpits and the unexplained blindness injuries, do you think government agents would actually admit they have abused these surveillance weapon-devices?  If one could show a jury in a courtroom the harm these devices are capable of doing to a human body up close, would it not stand for reason that they are harmful at any distance to the body, especially sensitive organs ??!!!  I doubt seriously if any law enforcement or military person would want to get in front of one of these devices and stay there for as long as they have aimed them at surveillance target-victims.  Why??

Surely the personnel who use these lasers have been trained and briefed on the possible effects of direct exposure.  There are other forms of these surveillance weapon devices which use sonar type technology, microwave, etc., etc., and most use radiation.  Whether one aims non-nuclear, electromagnetic radiation at a person, or nuclear gamma X-ray at someone, the effects on a long term overall basis to the human body will most always result in some debilitation like cancer or anemia, or chronic fatigue, or possibly even a condition of inflammation of blood vessels which can also result in death.

Regardless of what kind of radiation one cares to mention, if it is applied to the human body the results can be catastrophic if the radiation is re-applied over and over again on a regular basis.  How does this relate to today’s topic of surveillance?  Once again, if surveillance weapon-devices depend on emitting radiation aimed at target persons to hear the information then the target persons are receiving doses of radiation and we can say the device operators are “radiating” the target victim.

Enough repeated exposure sessions and the target victim person may begin to feel bad.  Let’s look at an early form of one of these devices which was used against an American embassy’s personnel later, and for now, let’s concentrate on the significance of how the Patriot Act allows abuses of these surveillance weapons on individuals domestically, that is, within the United States.

Under normal circumstances if the United States was not operating under the Emergency War Powers Act and other emergency laws, it would require a warrant be issued by a court of law in order to wiretap or invade one’s space with a microwave listening or infra red laser device and that would require a show of cause to a judge as in a “show cause” order.  At least some form of rudimentary evidence of possible terrorism or dangerous activity to provide “probable cause” for such investigation would need to be produced against the target person to be spied on before authorities could proceed with the sophisticated radiation producing weapon-devices, and the main point of all this is………..this would leave a legal record of when, and, consequently, how many times the targeted subject was radiated !!!!  Without this record a person can be relatively burned up with these weapons, having no way to accomplish discovery and form a lawsuit or counter suit against this brutal space-age abuse!!!

According to what I’ve seen, The Patriot Act forbids persons knowing of certain types of investigations from telling the target person he or she is being investigated, and applies even if the target is a relative.  Do you see what a perfect setup has been arranged for completely blindsiding, victimizing, and destroying a target-victim by various illegal programs of discrimination by authorities in the United States?  Don’t forget the F.B.I. Cointelpro program which may be called something else these days.  Remember how the late actress, Jean Seberg, was mentally tortured by the false, planted newspaper rumors and had a miscarriage?  She was later found “suicided”, dead for about 11 days, I think.

With no legal recourse, no legal remedy, no redress of grievance, the present day American public is literally falling apart.  In California one tortured man ran out of his house using his baby daughter as a human shield as he charged the police, allegedly firing at them with a gun, and he and daughter were gunned down and killed.  But, nowhere did anyone I know hear any news reports of whether acoustics were used on him and his family.  This man may have been driven mad by acoustics.  The press won’t say.

Perhaps those who don’t buy the phony Warren Commission Report just need a big dose of mind control, super duper microwave surveillance radiation, and, gee, without the need of a warrant issued by a judge who knows his or her bill of rights, such a skeptic can, without a doubt, be re-surveilled (radiated and treated) again and again.

Microwave Surveillance is Mind Control.  Microwave mind control hides government corruption as it destroys the target victims.  Target victims are citizens who are a liability to the crime families and syndicates who run and control the United States.

 

http://www.informamerica.net/

The scientific foundation of no touch torture

The scientific foundation of no touch torture by Martin Bott

Electromagnetic fields such as radio frequency and laser radiations always cause an electric current if they are acting on conducting materials such as metals and the human body. To have an effect on the nerves or the muscles this current needs to imitate the currents used by the body, as is the case with the commercially available muscle trainers or other bioelectric apparatus.

The currents used by the nerves have a low frequency in the order between several hertz to several kilohertz. To produce such low frequency currents through high frequency microwave or laser radiation several methods are used.

One technique is to use beats between two high frequency electromagnetic radiations with slightly different frequencies. These beats are actually a low frequency electromagnetic field which then causes a low frequency current. The frequency of the beats is actually the frequency difference between the two high frequency fields.

If an electromagnetic field of 1 Ghz and another of 1 Ghz plus 100 hertz are interacting, the resulting beats have a frequency of 100 hertz. These electromagnetic beats cause a current with a frequency of 100 hertz which then contracts muscles.

If the frequency of the beats is in the audible range, one would hear a sound or voice depending on the signal being used for modulation. Technically spoken one would overlay two high frequency electromagnetic radiations of equal frequency. To one of these microwave or laser radiations the desired low frequency signal, for example recorded nerve pulses or voice is added in a way that leads to an addition of the high frequency and the low frequency signal. The resulting beats between the two high frequency signals consist of a low frequency electromagnetic field which has the characteristics of the added nerve pulses or voice. This electromagnetic Field then causes an electrical current similar to the nerve pulses or voice added to the high frequency signal. And such an artificial nerve current has the same effect as the nerve currents used by the body.

Another possibility is to use an asymmetric electromagnetic field where the positive component has a different frequency from the negative component. Electric currents in the body are not caused by moving electrons as in metals but are mainly ionic currents. That is, they consist of moving electrically charged Atoms. These Atoms have a certain mass and size. Their relative size causes them to have, additional to their electrical resistance, a mechanical resistance in the body fluid. If the ion is moved faster, its mechanical resistance rises even faster.

The mechanical resistance rises as the square of the speed. This means that if the speed is doubled, the resistance is 2×2 which gives a value of 4. And if the speed rises by a factor of 3 the mechanical resistance rises by 3×3 which is 9. This effect can be felt if one moves the hand slow and fast through water.

As a consequence the ions conducting the current in the body experience a higher mechanical resistance if moved at higher frequencies as compared to lower frequencies. If the high frequency signal is asymmetric, meaning that the positive component of the sine wave has a different frequency as the negative component, the ion experiences two different mechanical resistances as well.

Since the energies of both components of the signal are equal, the ions are moved back and forth by the asymmetric field. But because of the lower mechanical resistance during slow movement they move a bit further in the direction enforced by of the lower frequency component.

This is illustrated with a DVD being moved through water in the Film 4 Strahlenwaffen. Such an asymmetric electromagnetic field can be generated with frequencies up to many Ghz by fast synthesizers. These asymmetric high frequency fields are causing ionic electric currents which can simulate nerve pulses in the body.

This techniques are used for brainwashing as well. If the parts of the brain which are passing the nerve signal from the ear to the brain are irradiated with such a speech modulated signal, the resulting voice is not being heard, as it is not coming from the ear. But it is not being thought either as it is not coming from inside the brain. That can make it difficult to decide whether specific thoughts or opinions are the result of brainwashing. Especially if one is not aware of this possibility. Brainwashing can be suspected if opinions or thoughts are openly false or even lead to dangerous behavior like taking drugs, drinking and smoking.

Suitably speech modulated electromagnetic fields are perceived as being heard or thought by certain brain regions involved in hearing. In a similar way the regions of the brain responsible for seeing can be stimulated by electromagnetic fields. The question arises to what extend this can be used. It is known that every point on the surface of the body corresponds to another point on the surface of the brain with regard to feeling, hearing and seeing. The surface of the brain is, so to speak, an image of the surface of the body with regard to data processing. Points being close together on the surface of the body or the retina are as well close together in the respective region of the brain. The region responsible for seeing is situated in the backof the skull, right over the neck and named visual cortex.

This opens the possibility to stimulate this region of the brain with laser using the techniques described in detail elsewhere in this text. A high resolution low frequency or asymmetric electromagnetic field being produced by heterodyning of two laser beams is used to scan the surface of the visual cortex. On its way over the brain surface it stimulates the nerves to cause the impression of seeing. And thus “write” a picture or a film onto the visual cortex.

There are two major obstacles to simply “write” a picture onto the brain. The first is that the structure and organization of every brain is a little different. The second is that the surface of the visual cortex is quite large and as a consequence is bent to fit into the scull resulting in a three dimensional structure.

The laser has to write the picture without the computer exactly knowing which part of the brain surface is matching a given point on the retina. This problem certainly would result in a distorted picture being “seen”. With modern computer techniques, matching a picture or a film to the bent surface of the brain, it is possible to write an exact picture onto the brain. The difficulty is to know which point on the brain corresponds to which point on the retina. This demands a possibility to calibrate the laser weapons.

But how can the brain, the retina and nerves in general be tapped with a sufficient high resolution at some distance? If a microwave signal is interacting with a low frequency signal such as is occurring in a nerve, both are heterodyning. This heterodyning causes signals with the frequencies microwave+nerve signal and another one microwave-nerve signal. As these resulting signals are microwave signals as well, they are radiating from the nerve and can be received at some distance, allowing direct measurement of the electric activity of the nerves.

The voltage of a nerve pulse measures about 50 to 100 millivolts. There are electronic circuits for transmitters operating with 600 millivolt and even less. These of course only have a short range of maybe 10 or 20 meters. However, the alternating voltage in the antenna of such a transmitter may not be much higher than 100 millivolt. Similar oscillating voltages result in similar radiated power. The nerves may not radiate as good as a metallic antenna but with the use of low noise amplifiers this may be compensated to some extend. A range of 5 to 10 meters for such a nerve tapping system seems to be reasonable and is more than what is necessary to map the electric activity of the retina and the brain.

The system needs two high resolution laser beams with slightly different frequencies to produce one beam of beats in the microwave range. These high resolution beats scan the group of nerves to be mapped. The local heterodyning between the electromagnetic beats in the microwave range and the nerve pulses cause microwave signals of different frequencies which are radiated. This allows to measure the nerve activity at some distance with a resolution depending on the resolution of the laser.

The technique is employed in the following way: One system is scanning the retina to exactly measure the local nerve activity with a high resolution. This allows at least to get a precise image of the patterns seen by the nerves of the retina at this moment. Maybe even a coloured picture similar to that seen with the eyes at this moment can be generated. A second system is simultaneously scanning the visual cortex.

During seeing a nerve signal from a spot on the retina is passed through the nerve system to the corresponding spot in the visual cortex. This spot then shows a nerve activity corresponding to the activity on the retina. Patterns seen by the eye show up on the surface of the brain as well.

Due to the irregular structure of the brain these patterns certainly will appear spatially distorted, but always in the same way. The technique described allows to map the retina and the visual cortex within seconds to gain sufficient data concerning the spatial distortion. This data then can be used to match a picture or a film to the spacial distortion in the visual cortex. This corrected picture will then be “seen” undistorted if written onto the brain with laser techniques.

Once this calibration is done any picture or film can be written at great distance onto the visual cortex. Certainly the picture seen by the eyes can be reproduced at great distances as well, using radar and lidar techniques to measure the direction the eyes are looking into. The picture of the area the eyes are looking into can be obtained by radar and lidar as well. This allows the possibility to write a modified or morphing picture or film of the reality into the visual cortex of the brain. This modified picture then interferes with the picture seen through the eyes. This technique seems to be used to simulate hallucinations by introduction of additional pictures or colours. The quality of the pictures and films being transmitted with this technique is unknown but may be very high. Certainly this technique used by the CIA/ NSA/ FBI is very costly and an enormous waste of tax money.

Making visible the picture seen by the eyes through tapping of the nerves seems to be done under favorable conditions for other reasons as well. In this case the tapped nerve signals are used to generate an exact picture of what is seen with the retina, to reveal what a person is looking at. And high resolution laser weapons allow to exactly steer the muscles of the eyes of a victim.

Both techniques combined allow the exact picture seen by a victim to be written on the retina of a CIA/ NSA/ FBI official. Then the movements of the muscles in the eye of the CIA/ NSA/ FBI official can be measured with radar and the data be used to steer the muscles of the victim likewise. This allows the agency preceding the CIA/ NSA/ FBI to cause a victim to see what they want him to see and to prevent the victim from seeing something else. This technique is being used in many ways to force a victim to make decisions, like choosing a certain company from the yellow pages or looking at specific points of a map omitting others.

Obviously crude techniques using electromagnetic radiation to write a picture onto the brain are known for quite some time. Around 1975 when I was about 10 years of age I had been told by classmates that one would have a third eye, situated on the brain right in the middle of the forehead, which I, of course, did not believe. However these children at the age of 10 or 12 years certainly knew a little more despite giving a false location for the visual cortex.

State of the art

According to the techniques published, one would expect a high resolution laser beam being split into two. One of these laser beams would run through a pockels cell where a synthesizer generated microwave signal would be added. This microwave signal would be asymmetric. Additionally it would be a spread spectrum signal, meaning that its frequency would change very fast over several Ghz. The interaction of these two laser beams produces beats in the microwave range.

As a result we have a high resolution and highly directional beam of an asymmetric electromagnetic field in the microwave range which then produces a low frequency current which can imitate the natural currents of the nerves. The target area is then scanned with this high resolution beam. Such beats in the microwave range penetrate an obstacle just like any radio frequency signal of the same frequency.

With this technique it is quite difficult to directly measure the beam due to the spread spectrum signal. Even with the proper measuring equipment it should be possible to shoot right around the sensors due to the very high resolution achievable with a laser. Other possibilities are jamming the sensors or using additional laser radiation which causes destructive interference of the electromagnetic waves within the sensor, nulling theeffect of the laser signal on this sensor.

Promising could be direct measurement of the currents on the surface, or better by electrodes within the body and comparing them with the natural body currents. Another possibility could be to use additional radiation of one or several suitable wavelengths which then interact with the radiation of the laser weapon to produce either beats or harmonics in a spectrum visible to the eye or cameras. A little bit of smoke would then reveal the path and origin of such a radiation used as weapon.

The generation of beats or harmonics can be used in shielding techniques as well. If additional radiation of a suitable wave length is overlaying or heterodyning the relatively low frequency beats of a laser weapon, harmonics can be generated in a frequency range which can not penetrate a certain barrier. An electromagnetic field causes atoms and molecules to move in time with the field. If the frequency of the electromagnetic field is low this movement of the atoms is slow as well, consuming relatively little of the energy being transmitted by the electromagnetic field. This allows microwave signals as well as electromagnetic beats in the microwave range to
penetrate walls.

If high frequency, for example infrared radiation, is overlaying the low frequency microwave signal, this heterodyning causes harmonics in the infrared region. These high frequency electromagnetic harmonics, like infrared radiation, are moving the atoms and molecules in time with their high frequency. These fast movements of atoms and molecules enforced by the harmonics or electromagnetic radiation are consuming the energy very fast, resulting in the radiation being shielded by converting it into heat.

The same physical principles are used for surveillance as well. The resolution achievable with laser radar techniques using infrared and visible light can be evaluated with regard to data storage on CD-ROM and DVD. Using heterodyning it is possible to penetrate one or several barriers. The use of UV-lasers allows a much higher resolution, making it possible to read CD-ROMs and DVDs at quite some distance, especially if they are positioned in a way exposing the optical layer to the laser. Stacks of many DVDґs may be read without any problem.

This makes possible to let organizations being interested in certain information, say voice or film recordings showing victims being tortured, to have a look at it and still being able to plausibly deny any knowledge. However, the material is archived somewhere. And the CIA/NSA/FBI certainly does not want this. And consequently may back off from torturing a person. Otherwise…film it, burn it and expose it.

The application to steering, brainwashing techniques and torture.

During steering the contraction of the muscles of the torturer is being measured with radar techniques. The contraction of the muscles of the torture victim is measured with radar techniques as well. Then electrical pulses are transmitted by laser or microwave techniques into the muscles of the torture victim till the muscles of both persons are contracted likewise, resulting in synchronous movements including speech. Being steered results in exactly following the movements of the person steering and saying what this person says.

Beating as it is frequently shown in the films requires purposeful movements of the body. These movements can be steered as described by a CIA/ NSA/ FBI official or by a person’s own brain. Brainwashing of course does not steer the muscles. Accordingly target is not beating during brainwashing and mood management as this requires deliberate and purposeful aimed movements of the body, not only enforced “thoughts” of any kind.

Brainwashing is done by converting voice into suitable electrical pulses. With theses pulses laser or microwave radiation is modulated in one of the already described ways. This modulated radiation is aimed at the regions of the head transmitting speech from the ears to the brain. This radiation then produces an electric current which is equivalent to the voice used for modulation.

Depending on the part of the head or brain being targeted this voice is perceived in a different way. If the ear is targeted the voice is heard like a normal voice as is the case with cochlear implants in deaf persons. If the areas of the brain are targeted which are transmitting the nerve signals from the ear to the brain, the voice does not come from the ear and is accordingly perceived more or less as thought. This makes it difficult, especially for the unaware, to distinguish between own thoughts and simulated “thoughts” enforced through brainwashing.

Because thoughts are more likely to be accepted as truth than an information given by another person, such enforced “thoughts” are used by the agency like the CIA/ NSA/ FBI to lie more effectively. An effective countermeasure could be to use an exotic language or dialect while thinking. This makes brainwashing more difficult as the CIA/ NSA/ FBI then has to use this language or dialect for brainwashing as well. The more exotic the better. America targeting native speakers of an exotic language for immigration may point to a possible operating field of the CIA/ NSA/ FBI, searching personnel to enable brainwashing in this region.

Additionally, enforced “thoughts” of any kind effectively prohibit a person to think on her own as long as the brainwashing continues. Such a prohibition to think, may result in a reduction of the intellectual capacity if continued over years due to lack of training. And it effectively prevents the targeted person to gain information from independent sources such as the media as a database to make correct decisions or to correct possible false beliefs.

This incident exposes the quality achievable in steering of the voice. Emotional changes in the torturers voice are being perfectly imitated by exactly copying the movements of the muscles to make the steered voice sound as natural as possible.

Obviously the computer processing the data being used for steering of the victims voice recognizes the emotionality of the steering CIA/ NSA/ FBI official to a certain extend. Techniques like stress analysis of the voice and measurement of the electrical resistance of the skin are being used in the polygraph for lie detection. The lower the resistance of the skin the stronger the current induced by radar and the stronger the returning radar signal.

With this data it is possible to a certain extend to automatically steer additional rudimentary mood management in phase with the mood and voice of the steering CIA/ NSA/ FBI official. Additional mood management used against the victim while being steered makes it harder to recognize this steering. Experiencing the own body insulting or even beating someone without being angry would be quite a strange experience, making it obvious that the own body is being steered. As it is sometimes been stated by persons being accused of aggressive behavior. The shouting and insulting carried out by the CIA/ NSA/ FBI official steering the target before beginning to beat could be part of this mood management system as well. To make it more difficult for target to recognize the mood management and the steering by diverting him through additional agitation.

A certain amount of blackout in some regions of the brain seems to be used by the CIA/ NSA/ FBI as well to render more difficult the detection of being steered. This suppression of intellectual capacity and power of recollection can be achieved through slowing down of the brainwaves or by jamming of the communication between the nerve cells using additional electric pulses being transmitted through radio frequency or laser weapons. Such a blackout sometimes as well is reported by persons being involved in violent incidents.

Even the short term memory can be erased to a certain extend as it stores the information electrically before this information finally is being stored chemically through connections of the nerves which can only be erased by destruction of the cells. But such a destruction would be easily detectable using modern medical equipment.

Electrical erasure of the short term memory by purpose can be assumed if one goes a short distance, say into another room for a certain reason and on arrival can not remember this reason.

The experience of a word being on the tip of someoneґs tongue which then slips away without the possibility to get a grip on it, also seems to be caused through erasure of the short term memory.

Committing someone to suicide can be achieved by brainwashing as well. However, directly steering a person into death will be much easier and thus be preferred. The recorded films show target completely being steered. This techniques can be used to assassinate a person by steering, using any of the conceivable methods to commit suicide. While being steered target had been made to shoot himself into the hand with an
air gun.

Causing someone to drive straight ahead into a tree or walk into a passing car can easily be done by producing low frequency beta waves in the brain, prohibiting all conscious action. Simple devices using this mechanism by employing laser or microwave radiation.

Interview with a CIA non-consensual human behavioral modification project

Transcript of Interview

Can you describe what mind control feels like?

JD: It takes on different characteristics over time. In the beginning, you simply don’t know that you are being influenced by it. Your brain doesn’t distinguish the external signal from your natural brain signals. Later, you feel that something is wrong and it feels like you are disassociated. Overtime as the intensity is turned up, you almost go into shock that such pain and trauma can be induced into the brain bypassing the normal sensory pathways. Just like turning a knob, full control of the human can be achieved or dissipated.

When full control is achieved it can best be described like a war in the mind. Your freewill is trying to overcome the mind control signal. Imagine a road with deep ruts in it. You are driving 55 miles an hour. Your tires get caught in the ruts and the car begins to steer itself to follow the deep ruts. When the car hops out of the ruts you get control but quickly the front tires get trapped into the ruts again. But unlike a car, you can’t just stop your mind. Even during sleep it continues and must follow the ruts. Later I learned that these ruts are called brain resonance entrainments and has commonalities to hypnosis.

What other kinds of psychological and neurological experiments were run on you?

JD: I counted over 75 different experiments from passing polygraphs and purposely failing polygraphs to memory recall experiments and trying to program me to kill various military leaders whom I didn’t know. They used sentence repetition, subliminal dream programming, a strange kind of brain imprinting using conditioning of emotional states that could be invoked with flashing images of the people I was to kill they told me.

What else can you tell people about your horrific experience and about neurological weapons?

JD: What was truly mind blowing for me is that I was forced to begin thinking in words. Every thought that I had after a while would be perceived as internal audio. They went through a mapping process where they refined and tuned the phonemes of perceived speech. It was as if they forced my brain to learn a way to control a voice synthesizer.

Can you imagine how maddening it is not to be able to think quickly and silently?

What do you think the purpose was of that experiment?

JD: At the time I was so confused as to why this was being done to me that I didn’t know. But in hindsight it was obvious that it served dual purposes at least. It is the perfect interrogation tool and by interjecting false sentences in the same “voice” as my new internal voice, the system would occasionally trick my mind into thinking that I thought it. They have been working on this technology and using it for over half a century. Again, in hindsight, I have seen this technology described in countless movies but didn’t believe that it really existed at the time.

How did they release you from the program?

JD: I don’t know if they fully did. They stopped the torture and violent imagery and repetitive sentence programming that were intensely painful, but not everything has stopped. Maybe I am to be triggered by a keyword to do their bidding. I just don’t know if I am a failed project because I was too aware of what they were trying to do or if I am now a programmed assassin. How could one know that technology to fully control a human as a remote control soldier has been perfected? I feel exactly how someone should feel who was tortured and now cope with post traumatic stress syndrome with flashbacks to the extreme torture methods.

It is difficult to know whether I should consider myself lucky that I survived or if the horror of being betrayed by my government and living with the knowledge on what a massive scale this is done isn’t a fate worse than death. There are no good guys to root for anymore.

What is Mind Control / Psychotronic Torture?



BY DEB CHAKRABORTY

 

The term “Mind control” basically means covert attempts to influence the thoughts and behavior of human beings against their will (or without their knowledge), particularly when surveillance of an individual is used as an integral part of such influencing and the term “Psychotronic Torture” comes from psycho (of psychological) and electronic. This is actually a very sophisticated form of remote technological torture that slowly invalidates and incapacitates a person. These invisible and non-traceable technological assaults on human beings are done in order to destroy someone psychologically and physiologically.

Actually, as par scientific resources, the human body, much like a computer, contains myriad data processors. They include, but are not limited to, the chemical-electrical activity of the brain, heart, and peripheral nervous system, the signals sent from the cortex region of the brain to other parts of our body, the tiny hair cells in the inner ear that process auditory signals, and the light-sensitive retina and cornea of the eye that process visual activity. We are on the threshold of an era in which these data processors of the human body may be manipulated or debilitated. Examples of unplanned attacks on the body’s data-processing capability are well-documented.

An entirely new arsenal of weapons, based on devices designed to introduce subliminal messages or to alter the body’s psychological and data-processing capabilities, might be used to incapacitate individuals. These weapons aim to control or alter the psyche, or to attack the various sensory and data-processing systems of the human organism. In both cases, the goal is to confuse or destroy the signals that normally keep the body in equilibrium.

Definition of psychotronic (psycho-physical) weapons.


Psychotronic Weapons (PF- weapons) this is the totality of all possible methods and means (techno-genic, suggestive, pharmacological, paranormal, complexes, and others) of hidden, forced influences on the psyche of a person for the purpose of modifying his consciousness, behavior and health for what is desired in the way of influencing aspects of control…” This is not only dangerous, this is deadly!”

Actually, the goal of mind control is to access those areas of the brain that are outside of the conscious control of the individual by circumventing the normal inhibiting response of the cerebral cortex: “an individual’s voluntary conscious self-control must be bypassed or short-circuited.” This unconscious coercion is done through electromagnetic-wave bombardment of the brain, .i.e. bombarding of the brain with low-frequency radio waves. These airborne waves can travel over distances and are known to change the behavior of animals and humans in their path. Such remote control makes possible potentially frightening uses for altering the brain’s functioning. These are invisible and deadly waves. This waves goes directly to the subconscious parts of the human brain for receiving or transcoding the messages and without the person exposed to such influence having a chance to control the information input consciously. This can alter a person thoughts, emotions, and behavior. To achieve truly lasting mind control requires the creation of “profound and deep emotional states.” Recommended are fear, shock and anxiety, which have “an intense disinhibitive effect on the human brain.” What this means, in essence, is that emotional trauma facilitates the accessing of dissociative states. In order to disable the brain’s “cortical block,” Verdier recommends alcohol, euphoric drugs, isolation, solitary confinement, and – “the most dramatic and unique item in the brainwashing arsenal” – hypnosis. All of these are methods that have been extensively tested by the CIA under the rubric of the MK-ULTRA program.

The technology is rooted in surveillance devices, such as audio and video bugs, through-the-wall and remote sensing devices, and biosensors both remote and implanted.  This provides the feedback for the influencing, as well as any “entertainment” value for voyeur/sadists and intellectual property theft for thieves.  Coupled with the surveillance is some sort of “effectors” or feedback path for influencing an individual.

Thus there are several categories of mind control operations, for example covert drugging, hypnosis and trauma conditioning, one-shot EM-type brain blasting, short-term mind fucks, and ongoing feedback control setups for long-term torture and exploitation of victims, to mention a few.  What they have in common is the attack against the mind of the victim, as well as the deniable and denied nature of the attack.  The exact means being used in any particular case are beside the point here.  These techniques do not just violate one or two of what everyone knows are fundamental human rights:  In one fell swoop they violate almost every fundamental human right a person has.

The electromagnetic technology works on the theory that the mind and body are an electromagnetically mediated biophysics system and the electromagnetic signals form outside sources can mimic the mind and body’s electromagnetic signals and therefore a weapon can be developed based on these principles.

There is evidence that since the 1950’s the U.S. and other government have been developing electromagnetic weapons which can remotely target the electromagnetic system of the human body for military and intelligence purposes.

The First phase is the harassment/surveillance program


During the first phase of this Govt. program a person is broken physically and mentally. The methods used are typical CIA and FBI tactics like Cointelpro tactics. They use Echelon, Tempest, microchips, implants, see through wall radar, obtain informants, neighbors, and co-conspirators to harass, discredit, and harm an individual. Victims loose their families, jobs, homes, and cars. Ultimate goal to destroy a persons life which will isolate them from family, friends. The isolation is needed to have access to the person to conduct many of the experiments on them. All privacy and constitutional rights are thus stripped away.

The second phase is the assaults of Directed Energy Weapons.


After a victim becomes isolated from everyone in the world. The victim now having feelings of regret, remorse, of loss, trauma, and are drained and broken emotionally and physically. During this time many have been implanted with microchips. Many begin experiencing extreme pain to their head. Some hear voices. Then pain is delivered to various other parts of their bodies. The pain is delivered by Directed Energy Weapons. No one sees anyone around them causing the pain and no one is touching them. It is an invisible energy force. Along with drugs being administered by the scientist through either a drip system which!has been inserted into an individual, food tampering, or injection all without the victims permission. Then Mind Entrainment begins.

Directed Energy Weapons


Some of the weapons were known as non-lethal weapons. They use such weapons as extremely low frequency Elf electromagnetic weapons (which has been used in mind control), acoustics, harmonics (which have been used as a mind control technique), ultrasound, microwave audiograms, microwave pulsed, and radio frequency. Another electromagnetic energy beam can be used to induce “considerable agitation and muscular activity” or “induce muscular weakness and lethargy” this weapon is know as Ultra High Frequency EM.

Psychological warfare tactics are being used against unsuspecting citizens to destroy their jobs, their families and their lives. The perpetrators will stop at nothing. Their objective is to utterly destroy a person, very often resulting in a person taking his or her own life, or ending up in a mental hospital. This has been taking place for years and nothing is ever said about it. Nothing is ever written about it. For the sake of those who came before us, and those who come after us, the world needs to know what is happening.

For many people, this comes out of nowhere. They don’t know whose toes they stepped on in order to warrant such a brutal attack. For others who are whistleblowers, they know full well how they garnered such attention. For some, they don’t even realize that they are the targets of an orchestrated attack to destroy their lives. Some of it can be so subtle that it is difficult to tell. But for others, the attacks can be blatant and obvious, leaving no doubt that something unspeakable and devastating is happening.

What makes this crime so heinous is that the most sophisticated techniques of psychological warfare are employed against a person in order to make them look like they are crazy. Friends and family members don’t believe the things that are happening and often believe the targeted person is crazy.

This whole exercise is a criminal & terrorist activity. One aspect deals with the gang stalking part of it, which targets experience to varying degrees. This involves stalking by a multitude of individuals both on foot and while you’re in the car. Known as “street theatre” by those who experience it, it involves vandalism to house, car and personal property. Gang stalking can also be referred to as cause stalking, vengeance stalking and multi-stalking.

Some people also experience electronic harassment. This is extremely distressing, painful and invasive, and feels like one’s mind and body is undergoing constant rape, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. The technology used to do this is unknown, but hundreds of victims report the same physical sensations and experiences. Many take their lives in an attempt to escape the horror. It is so distressing that only fellow targets can really understand what another target is experiencing.

In either case, the attacks are so well orchestrated that only the victim is aware of them. This is intentional, and it appears that these groups have perfected these techniques over many years. Mistakes are rarely made, and clearly the perpetrators are successful at what they do, since new targets are completely bewildered as to what is happening to them, having never heard a peep out of the media about such occurrences (except in relation to mental illness). Their actions are based on many of the same tactics as those employed in ritual abuse, and are designed to weaken the target’s mind and perpetrators are becoming increasingly addicted to this game of predator/prey, always needing more targets to satisfy their unending thirst for a thrill.

“Electronic harassment” or e-harassment is a catch-all term used to describe a group of circumstances which a large number of people are currently experiencing in common. In general, this term refers to the use of electronic technology to view, track and/or harass a person from a distance. Whether this is done by satellite, land based systems or locally (i.e. by neighbors) is largely personal opinion. There is no definitive proof that would allow any of the present victims to launch a court case, but the numbers of victims and the commonality of experience speaks for itself.

The technology involves the use of electromagnetic waves of various frequencies to achieve different results. Some frequencies will make a person tired, while others may cause confusion or memory loss. With the rapid increase in cell phone usage, many experiments have been conducted on the detrimental effects of those particular frequencies on animals. The results indicate that the invisible e.m. signals from cell towers can cause a wide range of physical ailments. If that is the case with the relatively narrow range of cell phone frequencies, it is even more likely the case with the frequencies which may be used to cause direct, intentional harm to a person.

Electronic harassment is sometimes referred to as “psychotronics”, but would more accurately be described as “criminal psychotronics”.

Types of Weapons:

Electromagnetic Weapons
Microwave Weapons
Non-Lethal Weapons
ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Weapons
Directed Energy Weapons
Acoustic Weapons
Psychotronic Weapons
RF (Radio Frequency) Weapons

Soft Kill Weapons
Less-Than-Lethal Weapons

Exposure To Low-Level ElectroMagnetic Fields Causes DNA Damage

Two brain cells from a rat exposed to a low-level electromagnetic field show significant amounts of damaged DNA, seen exiting from the cells. Findings by UW researchers suggest that such damage is cumulative. (Photo credit: University of Washington )

ScienceDaily (Feb. 19, 2004) — Prolonged exposure to low-level magnetic fields, similar to those emitted by such common household devices as blow dryers, electric blankets and razors, can damage brain cell DNA, according to researchers in the University of Washington’s Department of Bioengineering. The scientists further found that the damage from brief exposures appears to build up over time.

The new study is scheduled to be published in Environmental Health Perspectives, a journal of the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and is available now on the Internet.

In the study, the researchers discovered that rats exposed to a 60-hertz field for 24 hours showed significant DNA damage, and rats exposed for 48 hours showed even more breaks in brain cell DNA strands. Exposure also resulted in a marked increase in brain cell apoptosis, or “cell suicide,” a process in which a cell self-destructs because it can’t repair itself.

A previous study showed similar damage, but it was conducted at 10 times the intensity and rats were exposed for just two hours. That indicates that the effects of exposure are cumulative, and duration can be as damaging as intensity, said Henry Lai, a UW research professor who conducted the study with fellow UW bioengineer Narendra Singh. “In real life, people get this kind of exposure in brief doses – three minutes of exposure to a blow dryer, five minutes of exposure to an electric razor,” Lai said. “We found that this could add up over time and could eventually lead to some health effect.” Since Lai first reported findings of magnetic field-induced DNA damage in 1995, several laboratories in Europe and India have reported similar effects.

Traditionally, scientists have held that low-level electromagnetic fields couldn’t be harmful because they weren’t potent enough to break chemical bonds in a living organism. Lai doesn’t disagree – he simply suspects a more subtle mechanism is at work. He believes that the fields, rather than causing harm directly, initiate a process within the cells that leads to the damage.

Lai and Singh hypothesize that exposure to magnetic fields affects the balance of iron in certain cells, leading to an increase in free iron within the cell. That free iron undergoes a chemical reaction, which releases “free radicals,” or charged atoms that attack cell structures, including DNA, lipids and proteins.

To test the idea, the researchers gave some of the rats drugs that either neutralize free radicals or decrease free iron before exposing the animals to the magnetic field. The treatments supported the hypothesis, effectively blocking the effects of the fields and protecting the rats’ brain cell DNA from damage.

One significant implication of this is that certain types of cells with higher iron content – such as brain cells – may be more susceptible to damage from electromagnetic fields.

DNA damage in and of itself isn’t unusual – all cells experience some DNA damage through normal wear and tear and repair themselves. Problems can occur when that damage is significantly increased because that also increases the likelihood of a mistake being made in the repair process, resulting in a mutation that could lead to such diseases as cancer.

Some types of DNA damage are more worrisome than others. A break on one side of DNA’s ladder-like double helix is relatively easy to fix. Repairs are much harder if both sides of the helix are broken, and, as a result, the probability of a mutation is substantially higher. Lai and Singh found both single and double strand breaks in the exposed brain cells.

Lai said people shouldn’t be overly alarmed by his research results. But they do need to be aware of the possibility that low-level electromagnetic fields might be harmful, especially given the fact that electrical devices are such a central component of daily life. And most household appliances – blow dryers, razors, electric blankets, ovens, coffee makers, clocks – emit a 60-hertz field. More work needs to be done to fully understand the process at work and the risks involved, Lai added. In the meantime, he has some advice:

“People should do what they can to limit their exposure to as little as possible, especially in relation to electrical appliances that are used very close to the body.”

The study is available on the Web at http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2004/6355/abstract.html

Story Source:

University Of Washington (2004, February 19). Exposure To Low-level Magnetic Fields Causes DNA Damage In Rat Brain Cells, Researchers Find. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com­ /releases/2004/02/040219075606.htm

No-Touch Torture (Remote torture) , Interrogations and False Confession


Interrogation Tactics

It is well settled that courts permit interrogators to lie to suspects on certain subjects and to deceive them — and interrogators routinely exercise these freedoms. They lie about both the existence and the strength of the evidence that supposedly links the suspect to a crime. They deceive suspects by feigning certainty in the suspect’s guilt even when they have no evidence pointing to the person. And, when they know their advice is not in the suspect’s interest, they deceive by feigning sincerity when they volunteer advice about how best to deal with the problem facing the suspect.10

Interrogators also lie when they do things that the courts prohibit, such as promising leniency. Not only are their promises of leniency impermissible, they are false. Persons who are naïve about interrogation are unlikely to realize they are being lied to by the detective they correctly understand is promising that leniency will follow from a confession that the crime happened in a certain way. The detective knows that he has no power to deliver on his promise. He has no intention of trying to honor the promise. He probably does not believe that the crime happened as he has suggested. He has also probably already made up his mind that he will lie if asked about the promise and deny that he ever made it, even if he is asked while under oath.11

Interrogation is also an exceptional experience because the stakes are so high. Being accused of having committed a murder is likely to foster the realization that what life will be like in the future depends on the resolution of the accusation. Interrogators capitalize on and intensify the feelings associated with this realization. They try to make it seem that the suspect’s future, if not his life, turns on the outcome of the interrogation itself, as if it is during the interrogation that the accusation will be resolved. Both being accused of a serious crime and the interrogator’s initial position that the suspect’s future will be spent in prison are likely to be disturbing and create great anxiety. Interrogators act to magnify a suspect’s distress for two reasons. They want the suspect to believe that he or she needs to reach a resolution during the interrogation. They also want to intensify the suspect’s distress since emotionality interferes with thinking strategically and diminishes the likelihood that the suspect will consider possible options different from those the interrogator proposes.

Despite the fact that interrogations are conducted under atypical circumstances and in settings that are unusually stressful, there is no reason to imagine that a suspect’s decision-making is anything but rational given the information on which he is relying. That said, one should not forget the adage “garbage in, garbage out” and bear in mind that in assessing options the suspect is enmeshed in a fantasy deliberately created by the interrogator. Even knowing he is innocent of the crime, in assessing risk a suspect relies on false information about the amount of evidence that mistakenly links him to the crime. In deciding what is best for him to do, the suspect does not know that the offer of a way out is a fraud. What makes psychological coercion so dangerous is that it can lead an innocent person to erroneously conclude that giving a false confession is the best choice under what he perceives to be his circumstances.

Approaching interrogation as a matter of rational decision-making and being able to study records of interrogations have led to certain realizations about how detectives convince suspects to admit responsibility for a crime. To prepare someone to shift from denial to admission, detectives need to accomplish specific intermediate goals and address these goals in a particular order. Influencing someone to shift requires three steps: (1) that the suspect’s perception of his situation be changed from confident and secure that the interrogation will not be a problem for him to dispirited and hopeless; (2) that the suspect’s expectations about the future change from confident he or she will return to normal life to certain that arrest and imprisonment will follow the interrogation; and (3) that a motivator be provided to induce the suspect to shift from denial to admission of responsibility.

Interrogation records reveal that detectives use a relatively small number of alternative tactics to accomplish each of their essential sub-goals. Although interrogations vary somewhat as a function of the habits of the detectives conducting them and the crimes under investigation, the similarities from one interrogation to the next are far more striking than their differences. The similarities are there because detectives learn to conduct interrogations by attending schools or through on-the-job training that passes on the culture of interrogation.

True and false confessions happen in response to interrogations that are built from almost identical collections of tactics. Understanding why false confessions happen starts with realizing that interrogations that overcome a suspect’s resistance and produce confessions will always include steps 1 and 2 because these steps set up the suspect to view his situation in a certain way — because his future is determined, confessing or not makes no real difference.

The majority of the tactics detectives actually use in interrogation are approved (or not disapproved) by the courts. What appears to distinguish interrogations that can produce a false confession from those that do not have this potential is the type and strength of the motivator that the interrogator relies on to accomplish step 3. Interrogations that stay within the bounds set by the courts, including which motivational tactics may be used, do not seem to have the potential to cause normal, innocent adults to falsely confess.

Based on the research that has been done and my experience studying interrogation and false confession in the United States, it appears that knowing false confessions from psychologically and intellectually normal adults come about if and only if a detective introduces into the interrogation a too strong motivator, that is, a motivator that is psychologically coercive.12 A psychologically coercive motivator is created when an interrogator establishes a linkage between confessing and absolute or relative leniency and/or a linkage between continuing to deny and absolute or relatively severe punishment. Interrogators inject psychological coercion into an interrogation either by making direct, blatant threats and promises or through a more complicated method that works to communicate a message via a series of suggestions and slightly veiled promises.

Unfortunately, despite knowing full well that what they are doing is prohibited, some detectives deliberately use psychological coercion to obtain confessions from suspects. Although undoubtedly many of the suspects exposed to coercive motivators are guilty of the crime, some are not and the interrogator cannot necessarily tell the difference. The reliance by American police on the use of coercive motivators is a serious problem. According to studies, false confessions are one of the major causes of miscarriages of justice in America. ( Read More)